This week we finish the proof of the title’s contention that we started last week. Since this is mid-stream, be sure to review last week first.
 …Further. Every agent that requires prejacent matter in acting, has a matter proportionate to its action, so that whatever is in the potency of the agent, is all in the potentiality of the matter: otherwise it could not bring into act all that are in its active power, and thus would have that power, with regard to such things, to no purpose. Now matter has no such proportion to God. For matter is not in potentiality to any particular quantity, as the Philosopher declares (3 Phys.): whereas the divine power is simply infinite, as we proved in the First Book. Therefore God requires no prejacent matter as necessary for His action.
Notes A reminder that it takes infinite power to create matter/energy out of nothing. A second reminder that Infinity is the most foreign of foreign countries.
 Again. Of different things there are different matters: for the matter of spiritual things is not the same as that of corporeal things, nor that of heavenly bodies the same as that of corruptible bodies. This is evident from the fact that receptivity which is a property of matter is not of the same kind in the aforesaid: for receptivity in spiritual things is intelligible, thus the intellect receives the species of intelligible objects, but not according to their material being: while heavenly bodies receive newness of situation, but not newness of being, as lower bodies do. Therefore there is not one matter that is in potentiality to universal being. But God’s activity regards all being universally. Therefore no matter corresponds proportionately to Him. Therefore He requires not matter of necessity.
Notes Buried in this is the idea that our intellects are not material, which means we are not (just) our brains.
 Moreover. Wherever in the universe certain things are in mutual proportion and order, one of them must proceed from the other, or both from some one: for order must be founded in one by its corresponding with another; else order or proportion would be the result of chance, which is inadmissible in the first principles of things, because it would follow yet more that all else are from chance. If, then, there be any matter proportionate to the divine action, it follows that either the one is from the other, or both from a third. But since God is the first being and the first cause, He cannot be the effect of matter, nor can He be from any third cause. Therefore it follows that if there be matter proportionate to God’s action, He is the cause thereof.
Notes Plus, chance is not actual so it can never actualize a potential! Hence it can never be a cause. In Book One Aquinas discussed Aristotle’s meaning of “caused by chance“, which is entirely epistemological.
 Again. That which is the first of beings, must needs be the cause of the things that are: for if they were not caused they would not be set in order thereby, as we have already proved. Now between act and potentiality there is this order, that, although in the one and same thing which is sometimes in potentiality and sometimes in act, potentiality precedes act in point of time, whereas act precedes by nature; nevertheless, speaking simply, act must needs precede potentiality, which is evidenced by the fact that potentiality is not reduced to act save by a being in act. But matter is a being in potentiality. Therefore God Who is pure act must needs be simply prior to matter, and consequently the cause thereof. Therefore matter is not necessarily presupposed for His action.
Notes If you have this paragraph, you have it all—or most, anyway. Since all matter/energy is in potential, something purely actual must have come before it! And there we are. If you’re not recalling the difference between potential and act, review!
 Again. Primary matter is in some way, for it is a being in potentiality. Now God is the cause of all things that are, as we have proved. Therefore God is the cause of primary matter: to which nothing is pre-existent. Therefore the divine action needs no pre-existing nature.
Notes Recall “prime matter” is matter/energy not yet married to form; all the matter/energy we see has some form.
 Divine Scripture confirms this truth, saving (Gen. i. 1): In the beginning God created heaven and earth. For to create is nothing else than to bring something into being without prejacent matter.
 Hereby is refuted the error of the ancient philosophers who asserted that matter has no cause whatever, because they observed that in the actions of particular agents something is always prejacent to action: whence they drew the opinion common to all that from nothing naught is made. This is true in particular agents. But they had not yet arrived at the knowledge of the universal agent, which is the active cause of all being, and of necessity presupposes nothing for His action.
Notes So we have not only The Beginning, but the beginning of science.