We reach a minor goal today, in understanding God’s Will is not chance. But I think this is enough about God’s will, except for one or two other matters, which we’ll clear up next week. And then move to free will (again).
 HENCE it follows that the multitude of things willed is not inconsistent with the oneness and simplicity of the divine substance.
 For acts are distinguished according to their objects. If, then, the plurality of things willed by God indicated any kind of multitude in Him, it would follow that there is not only one operation of the will in Him: and this is contrary to what has been proved.
Notes Return to the idea of act and potential. If God was not simple in the technical metaphysical sense, He would be made of parts, and then what would account for the operation of these parts? Whatever it was couldn’t be in God ultimately, it would have to be outside Him, and therefore that which is not simple couldn’t be God. Well, that’s rough shorthand for what we proved before. Review the material on what God is simple means.
 Again. It has been shown that God wills other things in as much as He wills His goodness. Wherefore things stand in relation to His will for as much as they are comprised in His goodness. Now all things are one in His goodness: because other things are in Him according to His mode, to wit material things immaterially and multitude unitedly, as we have shown above. Hence it follows that the plurality of things willed does not argue plurality in the divine substance…
Notes There is a level of impenetrable mystery here. God is outside time; we are stuck in it. God is immaterial; we are a fusion of the material and immaterial. God is the First Cause of every change. And God is simple, as we have just reminded ourselves. God is changeless, but the material is change; time is change. How, then, does God interact with the material? How is something that is all-at-once with God perceived as change by us? Behind some technicalities and some hints that infinite power, i.e. omnipotence, is required, I don’t know. The mind boggles. All the analogies we create for ourselves are ultimately unsatisfactory.
The truth is, as St Thomas told us at the beginning of this book, that we can’t know the Mind of God fully. We can only speak analogically. We have some small proofs that God must exist, must be changeless, must be simple, must be omnipotent, omniscient, all loving and all that, but none of this answers the why. As a race, even after a few thousand years (more or less), we haven’t been able to probe very deeply. Keep reading.
 IT is also evident from the foregoing that in order to safeguard the divine simplicity it is not necessary for us to say that God wills other goods in a kind of universal way, in so far as He wills Himself to be the source of the goods which can flow from Him, and that He does not will them in particular.
 For the act of willing is according to a comparison of the willer to the thing willed. Now the divine simplicity does not forbid God’s being compared to many things, even to particulars: for He is said to be best or first even in comparison with singulars. Therefore His simplicity is not inconsistent with His willing things other than Himself even in special or particular…
Notes So here is a partial answer. In mathematics, we’d call this an existence proof. We know the thing of which we speak exists, but we have no idea how to get to it or why it is what it is. For that, we need a constructive proof—and that, I think, is not ours to have. And note the next argument.
 Moreover. According to the Philosopher (11 Metaph.) there is a twofold good of order in the universe: one consisting in the whole universe being directed to that which is outside the universe, just as the army is directed to the commander-in-chief: while the other consists in the parts of the universe being directed to each other, as the parts of an army: and the second order is for the sake of the first. Now God, through willing Himself as end, wills other things that are directed to Him as their end, as we have proved. Therefore He wills the good of the order of the whole universe in relation to Himself, and the order of the universe as regards the mutual relation of its parts. Now the good of order arises from each single good. Therefore He wills also singular goods.
 Further. If God wills not the singular goods of which the universe consists, it follows that the good of order is in the universe by chance: for it is not possible that some one part of the universe arranges all the particular goods so as to produce the order of the universe; and only the universal cause of the whole universe can do this, which cause is God Who acts by His will, as we shall prove further on. But it is impossible for the order of the universe to result from chance: since it would follow a fortiori that other things which come afterwards are the result of chance. Therefore it follows that God wills even each particular good…
Notes By “further on” St Thomas means the next book, which is still a few weeks away. And St Thomas doesn’t say it, but nothing can be the result of chance. Chance is not a force, a field, or a physics. Chance is entirely epistemological and in no way ontological. Whatever is changed is caused to be changed by some real thing. Thus at base it has to be God and not Chance.